Umberto und der italienische Diktator Mussolini waren keine Freunde.  Badoglio's offer was rejected as Admiral Ellery W. Stone of the ACC was opposed to Umberto's plans to have Bonomi share power with Badoglio and Orlando as upsetting the delicately achieved political consensus for no other reason than to increase the Crown's power.  The rumors did have at least some basis in fact as Marie Jose's doctor later confirmed that three out of the four royal children were conceived via artificial insemination as Umberto did not like to make love to his wife.  In the same interview, Umberto demanded the ACC censor the Italian press to end the criticism of the royal family, and claimed he had no choice, but to support Mussolini because otherwise he would have been disinherited.  Umberto made his second publicized visit to Italian Somaliland in October 1934. Umberto wurde am 14.  The statement from Victor Emmanuel in late 1943 that he felt he borne no responsibility for Italy's plight, for appointing Mussolini prime minister in 1922 and for entering the war in 1940 further increased his unpopularity and led to demands that he abdicate at once.  Im Sommer 1900 war die italienische Marine Teil der Acht-Nationen-Allianz, die den Boxeraufstand im Kaiserreich China niederschlug. Und schon bald musste sich Umberto als Offizier in den italienischen Einigungskriegen beweisen.  Umberto moved into the Quirinal Palace while at the Grand Hotel the Rome branch of the CLN met with the cabinet. Er bekam von seinem Großvater den Titel eines Prinzen von Piedmont verliehen.  Finally, Umberto made the controversial statement that Mussolini "at first had the full support of the nation" in bringing Italy into the war in June 1940, and Victor Emmanuel III had only signed the declarations of war because "there was no sign that the nation wanted it otherwise.  From his exile in Egypt, where King Farouk had welcomed him as a guest, Victor Emmanuel expressed no surprise at the result of the referendum as he always viewed Umberto as a failure who was unfit to be king, and claimed that the monarchists would have won the referendum if only he had not abdicated. ITALIANO - FRANCAIS - ENGLISH: Copyright©fondazionesavoia.org 2011 ), mit vollem Namen Umberto Rainerio Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Maria Ferdinando Eugenio di Savoia (* 14. Daraufhin griff König Umberto entgegen den ihm von der Verfassung auferlegten Beschränkungen in die Regierung ein.  Adding to their worries were a number of strikes in Milan starting on 5 March 1943 with the workers openly criticising both the war and the Fascist regime which had led Italy into the war, leading to fears in Rome that Italy was on the brink of revolution.  In April 1946, a public opinion poll of registered members of the conservative Christian Democratic party showed that 73% were republicans, a poll that caused immense panic in the monarchist camp. 1859 nahm Umberto an der siegreichen Schlacht von Solferino teil. Jahrhundert), „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Humbert; Rainer Karl Emanuel Johann Maria Ferdinand Eugen (bürgerlich). He travelled extensively during his exile, and was often seen in Mexico visiting his daughter Maria Beatrice.  Umberto himself had expected to win the referendum and was deeply shocked when the majority of his subjects chose a republic.. Traditionell durfte er keine Rolle in Staatsangelegenheiten spielen und entschied sich darum für eine Militärlaufbahn. One of these two alternatives shall occur according to whether the names of the champions or the destroyers of Christian civilization emerge victorious from the urns".  During the crisis of May 1915, when Victor Emmanuel III decided to break the terms of the Triple Alliance by declaring war on the Austrian empire, he found himself in a quandary as the Italian Parliament was against declaring war; several times, the king discussed abdication with the throne to pass to the Duke of Aosta instead of Umberto. September 1904 auf Schloss Racconigi, Piemont; 18. Umbertos Haltung gegenüber dem Heiligen Stuhl war nicht kompromissbereit, sondern er erklärte Rom für „unberührbar“ und bekräftigte die Dauerhaftigkeit des italienischen Besitzes an der „Ewigen Stadt“, die für ihn ein Symbol der nationalen Einheit war. Im März 1858 trat der 14-jährige Kronprinz als Hauptmann in die piemontesisch-sardische Armee ein und begann unter der Anleitung von Agostino Ricci eine Offizierslaufbahn.  In June 1941, supported by his father, Umberto strongly lobbied to be given command of the Italian expeditionary force sent to the Soviet Union, saying that as a Catholic he fully supported Operation Barbarossa and wanted to do battle with the "godless communists". Noch war der neu geschaffene Nationalstaat nicht befriedet; 1866 kam es zum Dritten Unabhängigkeitskrieg gegen Österreich, den Italien an der Seite Preußens bestritt.  Both the British and Americans told Umberto that Ethiopia had its independence restored in 1941 and would not revert to Italian rule, while the Allies had promised that Yugoslavia would be restored to its pre-war frontiers after the war. Zu Beginn des Krieges, während der italienischen Invasion Frankreichs, war Umberto Befehlshaber der Heeresgruppe West. In September 1943, Italy was partitioned between the south of Italy administered by the Italian government with an Allied Control Commission (ACC) having supervisory powers while northern and central Italy were occupied by Germany with a puppet Italian Social Republic (popularly called the Salò republic) headed by Mussolini holding nominal power. Er war ein Vertreter des Imperialismus und forderte für sein Königreich Kolonien in Übersee, um nicht hinter den anderen Großmächten Europas zurückstehen zu müssen.  Montanari recalled that he was "seduced" by the lavish gifts Umberto gave him. Umberto, who considered himself a great fashionista, personally designed his bride's wedding dress and according to a popular rumor liked to wear his bride's wedding dress in the company of his gay friends. No single voice was raised in protest.  The strike wave in Milan quickly spread to the industrial city of Turin, where the working class likewise denounced the war and Fascism. He reigned for 34 days, from 9 May 1946 to 12 June 1946, although he had been de facto head of state since 1944, and was nicknamed the May King (Italian: Re di Maggio). Und i h m hat sich ein Mörder doch genaht, Im Zweiten Weltkrieg war sie eine Schlüsselstellung der deutschen Gustav-Linie. He was the third child, and the only son, of King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and his wife, Elena of Montenegro. 1050 Brüssel, Belgien April 1868 schließlich seine Cousine ersten Grades, Margarethe von Genua (* 20.  The Catholic Church saw the continuation of the monarchy as the best way of keeping the Italian left out of power, and during the referendum campaign Catholic priests used their pulpits to warn that "all the pains of hell" were reserved for those who voted for a republic. Prime Minister Alcide de Gasperi assumed office as Italy's interim Head of State.  Acquarone told Badoglio to keep his views to himself as the king was completely unwilling to abdicate, all the more so as he believed that Umberto was unfit to be king.. Tel. Von hier aus weiteten die Italiener ihren Einfluss auf Somalia aus und Umberto wurde nachgesagt, er strebe die Errichtung eines großen Imperiums in Nordostafrika an. An attempted assassination took place in Brussels on 24 October 1929, the day of the announcement of his betrothal to Princess Marie José. Die Abtei Monte Cassino wurde im 6. Umberto und der italienische Diktator Mussolini waren keine Freunde. By mutual agreement, Umberto and Mussolini always kept a distance. Nach den schweren Gefechten um Cassino ein Glück im Unglück. Corps des Generals Enrico Morozzi della Rocca und verhinderte so hohe italienische Verluste. Dressed in military uniform as First Marshal of the Empire, decorated with the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation, he seemed more like a majordomo than a king. This trip was part of the political plan of Fascism to link the Italian people living outside of Italy with their mother country and the interests of the regime. : +31 (0)30 200 6834, Büro Belgien: Victor Emmanuel III was anti-clerical, distrusting the Catholic Church, and wanted nothing to do with a peace attempt made through papal intermediaries. In a break with the traditions of the House of Savoy, Umberto was an intense Catholic, described by his biographer Domenico Bartoli as "almost to the point of fanaticism", but he was unable to resist what he called his "satanic" homosexual urges. This role was merely formal, the de facto command belonging to his father, King Victor Emmanuel III, who jealously guarded his power of supreme command from Il Duce, Benito Mussolini.  Republican cartoonists mercilessly mocked Umberto's physical quirks, as the American historian Anthony Di Renzo wrote that he was: "Tall, stiff, and balding, he had smooth, clean-shaven blue cheeks, thin lips, and a weak chin.  As the Allies pushed northwards, aside from the damage caused by the fighting, the retreating Germans systematically destroyed all of the infrastructure, leading to a humanitarian disaster in the liberated parts. Nach dem Tod seines Vaters am 9. Am 4.  Reflecting the tense "institutional question" of republic vs. monarchy, Umberto when swearing in the Bonomi cabinet allowed the ministers to take either their oaths to himself as the lieutenant general of the realm or to the Italian state; Bonomi himself chose to take his oath to Umberto while the rest of his cabinet chose to take their oaths only to the Italian state. Im September 1870 eroberte das Königreich Italien den Kirchenstaat und Rom. Als neu gekrönter König machte Umberto eine Rundreise durch sein Land und kam am 17. Umberto was educated for a military career and in time became the commander-in-chief of the Northern Armies, and then the Southern ones.  Umberto spent much of his time with the bisexual French actor Jean Marais and the boxer Primo Carnera. Welcome to the Europe Remembers platform and thank you for your interest in contributing to our awareness campaign. , Umberto shared his father's fears that Mussolini's policy of alliance with Germany was reckless and dangerous, but he made no serious move to oppose Italy becoming an Axis power. Mai 1898 kam es in Mailand zu Massendemonstrationen wegen ständig steigender Brotpreise. At the time when Umberto was dying, in 1983, President Sandro Pertini wanted the Italian Parliament to allow Umberto to return to his native country. I, an old monarchist, am therefore specially grieved when I see the monarchs themselves working to discredit the monarchy". Die Suche nach einer standesgemäßen Ehefrau für Umberto gestaltete sich problematisch, da die alten europäischen Adelshäuser zunächst Abstand von einer Verbindung mit den „Emporkömmlingen“ nahmen.  Sforza, who tried to interest the British members of the ACC in this plan as he called Victor Emmanuel a "despicable weakling" and Umberto "a pathological case", saying neither were qualified to rule Italy. September 2020 um 11:40 Uhr bearbeitet. Februar 1944 wurde das Kloster in der fälschlichen Annahme, dass die Deutschen es als Beobachtungsposten nutzten, von den Alliierten bombardiert. , Various Italian politicians had attempted to persuade the Allies to revise the armistice of 1943 in Italy's favor under the grounds that there was a difference between the Fascist regime and the Italian people, and Umberto's statement that the House of Savoy bore no responsibility as he asserted that the Italian people had been of one mind with Mussolini in June 1940 was widely seen as weakening the case for revising the armistice. Januar 1926) heiraten musste. This was not considered proper, given the international situation; thereafter Umberto was more rigorously excluded from political events.  The Catholic Church presented the referendum not as a question of republic vs. monarchy, but instead as a question of Communism vs. Catholicism, warning to vote for a republic would be to vote for the Communists. They then spent the afternoon together". This was formalised by Royal Decree on 29 September 1904. ', Fernando de Rosa fired a single shot that missed him.  On 16 July 1943, the visiting papal assistant secretary of state told the American diplomats in Madrid that King Victor Emmanuel III and Prince Umberto were now hated by the Italian people even more than Mussolini. den Thron des Königreichs Sardinien und der erst fünfjährige Umberto wurde neuer Kronprinz.  In the part of Italy under the control of the ACC, which issued orders to the Italian civil servants, a free press was allowed together with freedom of association and expression. Umberto later stated that he would have never signed the peace treaty of 1947 under which Italy renounced its empire. zum Generalleutnant befördert und zum Oberbefehlshaber der römischen Garnison ernannt. 1942 wurde er zum Marschall von Italien befördert, aber dabei blieb es dann auch. Dezember 1943 stattfand, war das erste Gefecht der königlichen italienischen Armee gemeinsam mit de alliierten Streitkräften. Relations between Umberto and Marie José grew more strained during their exile, and in effect their marriage broke up with Marie José moving to Switzerland while Umberto remained in Portugal, though as Catholics, the couple never filed for divorce.. , Umberto was the first cousin of King Alexander I of Yugoslavia.  The intransigent and radical group of Fascists led by the gerarchi Roberto Farinacci who wanted to continue the war were only a minority while the majority of the gerarchi supported Grandi's call to jettison Mussolini as the best way of saving Fascism. However, Victor Emmanuel retained the title of King. Die konservative Regierung reagierte mit der Beschneidung bürgerlicher Freiheiten. 3512 EH Utrecht, Niederlande  As Umberto continued as regent, he surprised many after his rocky start in the spring of 1944 with greater maturity and judgement than was expected. Website: www.liberationroute.com.  Adolf Hitler had other plans for Italy, and in response to the Italian armistice ordered Operation Achse on 8 September 1943 as the Germans turned against their Italian allies and occupied all of the parts of Italy not taken by the Allies.  In 1943–44, the cost of living in southern Italy skyrocketed by 321% while it was estimated that people in Naples needed 2, 000 calories per day to survive while the average Neapolitan was doing well if they consumed 500 calories a day in 1943–44. Umberto was born at the Castle of Racconigi in Piedmont.  Umberto's principal arguments for retaining the monarchy were it was the best way to revive Italy as a great power; it was the only institution capable of holding Italy together by checking regional separatism; and it would uphold Catholicism against anti-clericalism. As a referendum on the abolition of the monarchy was in preparation, Victor Emmanuel abdicated his throne in favour of Umberto in the hope that his exit might bolster the monarchy.  Mack Smith cautioned that the friendly reception that Umberto received in Rome may have been due to him being a symbol of normalcy after the harsh German occupation as opposed to genuine affection for the prince. On 3 September 1943, the British 8th Army landed on the Italian mainland at Reggio Calabria while the U.S. 5th Army landed at Salerno on 9 September 1943 a few hours after it was announced that Italy had signed an armistice. Und seines Landes Glück und Ruhe sann! Umberto was the only son among the five children of King Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Elena. Badoglio went about the negotiations in a halfhearted way while allowing a massive number of German forces to enter Italy.  The crisis ended on 12 December 1944 with Umberto appointing a new government under Bonomi consisting of ministers from four parties, the most important of which were the Communists and the Christian Democrats.  For the first time in his life, Umberto criticised his father, saying the King of Italy should not be fleeing Rome and only reluctantly obeyed his father's orders to go south with him towards the Allied lines. November 1878 nach Neapel. , Umberto's own relations with the Allies were strained by his insistence that after the war Italy should keep all of its colonial empire, including Ethiopia and the parts of Yugoslavia that Mussolini had annexed in 1941.  The British historian Denis Mack Smith wrote that it is not entirely clear why Victor Emmanuel was prepared to sacrifice his 10-year-old son's right to succeed to the throne in favor of the Duke of Aosta.  Churchill especially disapproved of the replacement of Badoglio with Bonomi, complaining that in his view that Umberto was being used by "a group of aged and hungry politicians trying to intrigue themselves into an undue share of power". Zum Dank für seine hervorragenden militärischen Leistungen wurde Umberto von Viktor Emanuel II. , Umberto earned widespread praise for his role in the following three years with the Italian historian Giuseppe Mammarella calling Umberto a man "whose Fascist past was less compromising" than that of Victor Emmanuel and who as lieutenant general showed certain "progressive" tendencies. Die Stadt Cassino war ein wichtiger Stützpunkt der Gustav-Linie, der deutschen Verteidigungslinie in. , Unlike the conservative Marshal Badoglio, the socialist Bonomi started to move Italian politics in an increasing democratic direction as he argued that King Victor Emmanuel III who had only turned against Mussolini when it was clear that the war was lost was unfit to continue as king. In the summer of 1940, Umberto was to command a planned invasion of Yugoslavia, but Mussolini subsequently cancelled the invasion of Yugoslavia in favor of invading Greece. , At a meeting of the leading politicians from the six revived political parties on 13 January 1944 in Bari, the demand was made that the ACC should force Victor Emmanuel to abdicate to "wash away the shame of the past". De Rosa was arrested and, under interrogation, claimed to be a member of the Second International who had fled Italy to avoid arrest for his political views.  Since the war in which Mussolini had involved Italy in 1940 had become such an utter catastrophe for the Italian people by 1943, it had the effect of discrediting all those associated with the Fascist system. Juni 1946. , In hopes of influencing public opinion ahead of a referendum on the continuation of the monarchy, Victor Emmanuel formally abdicated in favour of Umberto on 9 May 1946 and left for Egypt.  Umberto together with the rest of his government spent of their time attempting to have humanitarian aid delivered. Dies wurde als Zeichen gewertet, dass Rom die neue Hauptstadt Italiens wurde. Als Italien eine Republik wurde, verließ er das Land und lebte er bis zu seinem Tod im Exil in Cascais in Portugal. © Public Domain, Prince Umberto at his desk in the Royal Palace of Naples, May 1944.  Nor had the issue of Italy's borders been settled definitively, so the voting rights of those in disputed areas had not been satisfactorily clarified. Die Schlacht von Monte Lungo, die zwischen dem 8. und 16. The republic was formally proclaimed four days later, ending Umberto's brief 34-day reign as king.  After her failure – she never met the American agents – she was sent with her children to Sarre, in Aosta Valley, and isolated from the political life of the Royal House. No demand was made for summoning parliament". Den Selbstsucht nie geblendet hat und nicht  On 25 November 1944, Bonomi resigned as prime minister, saying he could not govern owing to his difficulties with the CLN, and as the politicians could not agree on a successor, Umberto used the impasse to reassert the Crown's powers. , In the first half of 1943, as the war continued to go badly for Italy, a number of Fascist officials upon learning that the Allies would never sign an armistice with Mussolini began to plot his overthrow with the support of the king.  The possibility of losing the referendum also led to the monarchists to appeal to Victor Emmanuel to finally abdicate.  Not trusting his son, Victor Emmanuel had told Umberto nothing about his attempts to negotiate an armistice nor about his plans to flee Rome if the Germans should occupy it. In der Folge erhielt er eine zeitgemäße und standesgemäße Erziehung.  The Italian court relocated itself to Brindisi in the south of Italy after fleeing Rome. Under strong pressure from Robert Murphy and Harold Macmillan of the ACC at a meeting on 10 April 1944, Victor Emmanuel transferred most of his powers to Umberto.  After the liberation of Rome on 6 June 1944, the various Italian political parties all applied strong pressure on Umberto to dismiss Badoglio who had loyally served the Fascist regime until the royal coup on 25 July 1943, which resulted in the moderate socialist Ivanoe Bonomi being appointed prime minister. Am Vorabend der Schlacht von Monte Lungo (8. , In December 1945, Umberto appointed a new more conservative government under Alcide De Gasperi.  Furthermore, it was widely noted in Italian elite circles that when Umberto and Marie José went on trips they always stayed in separate bedrooms. Umberto was given the standard military education of a Savoyard prince. Die Sozialisten standen im Gegensatz zur außenpolitischen Expansionspolitik. Rom war zur offenen Stadt erklärt worden, was bedeutete, dass sie ohne Kampfhandlungen eingenommen werden konnte.  The British foreign secretary Anthony Eden wrote after meeting Umberto in a message to London that he was "the poorest of poor creatures", and his only qualification for the throne was that he had more charm than his charmless father.  With the exceptions of Marshal Enrico Caviglia, General Calvi di Bergolo and General Antonio Sorice, the Italian generals simply abandoned their posts on the night of 8–9 September to try to flee south, which greatly facilitated the German take-over, as the Regio Esercito was left without leadership.
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