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All Rights Reserved. [38][40][41] More than eight thousand men and boys were taken that day, while Wojtyła escaped to the Archbishop's Palace,[38][39][40] where he remained until after the Germans had left. [201], During the investiture of President Thomas Boni Yayi of Benin as a titled Yoruba chieftain on 20 December 2008, the reigning Ooni of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Olubuse II, referred to Pope John Paul II as a previous recipient of the same royal honour. [35] His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and later officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941,[36] leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member. Daniel Patrick Moynihan, "Will Russia blow up?" [262][263] An Irish Independent article in the 1980s labelled John Paul II the keep-fit pope. 4:11. In. John, Rev. Poland's Communist leaders intended to use the pope's visit to show the people that although the pope was Polish it did not alter their capacity to govern, oppress, and distribute the goods of society. However, Cardinal Roberto Tucci, the organiser of John Paul II's visits, revealed that Pinochet tricked the pontiff by telling him he would take him to his living room, while in reality he took him to his balcony. Baziak was the principal consecrator. During that meeting the Pope said, "...Medjugorje is the continuation and it is the completion of Fatima! The visit took place 500 years after the birth of Martin Luther, German Augustinian monk and Protestant Reformer. [184][185] John Paul II has been credited with being instrumental in bringing down Communism in Central and Eastern Europe,[79][92][97][114][115][186] by being the spiritual inspiration behind its downfall and catalyst for "a peaceful revolution" in Poland. He underwent five hours of surgery to treat his wounds. [83][84] The pair exchanged personal letters over 30 years, and Stourton believes that Tymieniecka had confessed her love for Wojtyła. It is therefore very easy for them to succumb to the temptation of thinking of themselves as better than others. He accepted his election with the words: "With obedience in faith to Christ, my Lord, and with trust in the Mother of Christ and the Church, in spite of great difficulties, I accept". [353] Law resigned from this position in November 2011. "[37], After his father's death, he started thinking seriously about the priesthood. Edmund's work as a physician eventually led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. In Mainz, he met with leaders of the Evangelical Church in Germany, and with representatives of other Christian denominations. [278] An estimated four million mourners gathered in and around Vatican City. [108][109], It was beyond history, beyond memory. John Paul II apologised to many groups that had suffered at the hands of the Catholic Church through the years. [143][144], In 1984 and 1986, through Cardinal Ratzinger (future Pope Benedict XVI) as Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, John Paul II officially condemned aspects of liberation theology, which had many followers in Latin America. Alle 12.30 il Cardinale Camerlengo presiederà una celebrazione per dare inizio alle visite alla salma di Giovanni Paolo II esposta nella Sala Clementina per l’ossequio e la preghiera dei membri della Curia Romana, delle Autorità e del Corpo Diplomatico. His was what Joseph Nye calls 'soft power' — the power of attraction and repulsion. John Paul II proceeded to call for the need for religious tolerance, praised nature, and emphasised common elements between animism and Christianity, saying: Nature, exuberant and splendid in this area of forests and lakes, impregnates spirits and hearts with its mystery and orients them spontaneously toward the mystery of He who is the author of life. [23][55][86], The second conclave of 1978 started on 14 October, ten days after the funeral. [119], While he was visiting the United States in 1977, the year before becoming pope, Wojtyla said: "All human life, from the moments of conception and through all subsequent stages, is sacred. John Paul II visited the Vicariate of Solidarity's offices, spoke with its workers, and "called upon them to continue their work, emphasizing that the Gospel consistently urges respect for human rights". It currently awaits the approval from the Holy See to open the diocesan phase of the cause. [22][23] He was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła (1879–1941), an ethnic Pole, and Emilia Kaczorowska (1884–1929), who was of distant Lithuanian heritage. Pope John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus II; Italian: Giovanni Paolo II; Polish: Jan Paweł II; born Karol Józef Wojtyła [ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛv vɔjˈtɨwa]; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 until his death in 2005. Supporters of Benelli were confident that he would be elected, and in early ballots, Benelli came within nine votes of success. ("[Make him a] Saint Immediately!") [347], In 2002, Archbishop Juliusz Paetz, the Catholic Archbishop of Poznań, was accused of molesting seminarians. During the African Synod, we, the pastors of the church, felt the duty to express our consternation and to launch an appeal for forgiveness and reconciliation. In his book-length interview Crossing the Threshold of Hope with the Italian journalist Vittorio Messori published in 1995, John Paul II draws parallels between animism and Christianity. [268][400] The Vatican described the documentary as "more smoke than mirrors", and Tymieniecka denied being involved with John Paul II. "[30] It was around this time that the young Karol had his first serious relationship with a girl. A discussion of the crucial work of Ratzinger (later pope) to attempt reconciliation between Lefebvre and the Holy See, Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, List of pastoral visits of Pope John Paul II outside Italy, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Social and political stances of Pope John Paul II, Apostolic Pro-Nuncio to the United States, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, Matrimonial nullity trial reforms of Pope Francis, Ordinariate for Eastern Catholic faithful, Ranking of liturgical days in the Roman Rite, Note on the importance of the internal forum and the inviolability of the Sacramental Seal, Matrimonial Nullity Trial Reforms of Pope Francis, Formal act of defection from the Catholic Church, List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church, List of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church, Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura, Beatification and canonization process in 1914, Canonical erection of a house of religious, Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life, Our Lady of the Atonement Catholic Church, Pope John Paul II's relations with the Eastern Orthodox Church, Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, Relations between Catholicism and Judaism, Papal Concert to Commemorate the Holocaust, Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, United States Central Intelligence Agency, Letter of Reconciliation of the Polish Bishops to the German Bishops, Prayer for Forgiveness of the Sins of the Church, Pope John Paul II High School (Tennessee), John Paul the Great Catholic High School (Indiana), John Paul II Catholic Secondary School (London, Ontario, Canada), Saint John Paul the Great Catholic High School (Virginia), Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, St. John Paul II High School (Hyannis, MA), St. John Paul II Catholic High School (Alabama), St. John Paul II Seminary (Washington, DC), Canonization of Pope John XXIII and Pope John Paul II, sexual misconduct by its leader Marcial Maciel, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, List of places named after Pope John Paul II, List of pastoral visits of Pope John Paul II, Museum of John Paul II and Primate Wyszynski, "St. John Paul II, the patron saint of families", "John Paul II proclaimed the patron saint of Świdnica", "Trecastelli celebra il suo patron ricordando Giovanni Paolo II", "Il santo patrono del nuovo commune è Giovanni Paolo II",, "John Paul the Great Catholic University", BEATIFICATIONS BY POPE JOHN PAUL II, 1979–2000, "Pope John Paul II (St. Karol Józef Wojtyła)", "Report: Pope Francis Says John Paul II to Be Canonized April 27", "Feast days of Sts. Newsweek (19 November 1979): 144,147. And so they came to him by the millions. 1:47 . Paolo Della Sciucca : Avant que le Tram Passe. [358][359] Other movements and religious organisations of the Church went decidedly under his wing Legion of Christ, the Neocatechumenal Way, Schoenstatt, the charismatic movement, etc. [122] He campaigned for world debt forgiveness and social justice. [274] In Warsaw, in 1979, he simply said: 'Do not be afraid', and later prayed: 'Let your Spirit descend and change the image of the land … this land'. [32] During this time, his talent for language blossomed, and he learned as many as 15 languages — Polish, Latin, Italian, English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Luxembourgish, Dutch, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian, Czech, Slovak and Esperanto,[33] nine of which he used extensively as pope. [63], In 1953, Wojtyła's habilitation thesis was accepted by the Faculty of Theology at the Jagiellonian University. In 1998 Pope John Paul II issued the motu proprio Ad tuendam fidem, which amended two canons (750 and 1371) of the 1983 Code of Canon Law and two canons (598 and 1436) of the 1990 Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches. John Paul withdrew it, wagged his finger in Cardenal's face, and told him, "You must straighten out your position with the church. He extended it to the condemnation of abortion, euthanasia and virtually all capital punishment,[121] calling them all a part of a struggle between a "culture of life" and a "culture of death". [244], A second assassination attempt was made on 12 May 1982, just a day before the anniversary of the first attempt on his life, in Fátima, Portugal when a man tried to stab John Paul II with a bayonet. Throughout the conflict, he appealed to the international community to stop the war, and after it was over led diplomatic initiatives to negotiate peace in the Middle East. [59], According to Wojtyła's schoolmate the future Austrian Cardinal Alfons Stickler, in 1947 during his sojourn at the Angelicum Wojtyła visited Padre Pio, who heard his confession and told him that one day he would ascend to "the highest post in the Church". The thirty-two-year friendship (and occasional academic collaboration) lasted until his death. [75] Baziak died in June 1962 and on 16 July Wojtyła was selected as Vicar Capitular (temporary administrator) of the Archdiocese until an Archbishop could be appointed. [354], On November 10, 2020, the Vatican published a report which found that John Paul II learned of allegations of sexual impropriety against former cardinal Theodore McCarrick, who at time was serving as Archbishop of Newark, through a 1999 letter from Cardinal John O'Connor warning him that appointing McCarrick to be Archbishop of Washington D.C., a position which had recently been opened, would be a mistake. Tommie Bowers. [49] In Wojtyła's last book, Memory and Identity, he described the 12 years of the Nazi régime as "bestiality",[50] quoting from the Polish theologian and philosopher Konstanty Michalski. In January 2005, John Paul II became the first pope known to receive a priestly blessing from a rabbi, when Rabbis Benjamin Blech, Barry Dov Schwartz, and Jack Bemporad visited the Pontiff at Clementine Hall in the Apostolic Palace. [92][97][111][114][115], As an extension of his successful work with youth as a young priest, John Paul II pioneered the international World Youth Days. Berger's biological Jewish parents died during the Holocaust, and after the war Berger's new Christian parents asked Karol Wojtyła, the future Pope John Paul II, to baptise the boy. [15] It is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II (22 October) is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. In 1983, John Paul II visited Guatemala and unsuccessfully asked the country's president, Efraín Ríos Montt, to reduce the sentence for six left-wing guerrillas sentenced to death. He was the first pope ever to visit several countries in one year, starting in 1979 with Mexico[101] and Ireland. When he became pope in 1978 at the age of 58, John Paul II was an avid sportsman. John Paul II's testament, published on 7 April 2005,[277] revealed that the pontiff contemplated being buried in his native Poland but left the final decision to The College of Cardinals, which in passing, preferred burial beneath St. Peter's Basilica, honouring the pontiff's request to be placed "in bare earth". "Eucharistic Concelebration for the Repose of the Soul of Pope John Paul II: Homily of Card. "[123] In 2000, he publicly endorsed the Jubilee 2000 campaign on African debt relief fronted by Irish rock stars Bob Geldof and Bono, once famously interrupting a U2 recording session by telephoning the studio and asking to speak to Bono.[124]. I am speaking to you in your—no, our Italian language. Upon hearing of this, the dying pope was said to have stated: "I have searched for you, and now you have come to me, and I thank you. "[339] In April 2003, a three-day conference was held, titled "Abuse of Children and Young People by Catholic Priests and Religious", where eight non-Catholic psychiatric experts were invited to speak to near all Vatican dicasteries' representatives. Virgilio and Christine Allison. [259][305][311] In February 2007, second class relics of Pope John Paul II—pieces of white papal cassocks he used to wear—were freely distributed with prayer cards for the cause, a typical pious practice after a saintly Catholic's death. Four kings, five queens, at least 70 presidents and prime ministers, and more than 14 leaders of other religions attended. He arrived at Niegowić at harvest time, where his first action was to kneel and kiss the ground. Utilizziamo i cookie per essere sicuri che tu possa avere la migliore esperienza sul nostro sito. The Church can and must remind men—and in particular those who govern—of their ethical duties for the good of the whole of society. Did Pope John Paul II Have a Secret Lover? [202], John Paul II had good relations with the Armenian Apostolic Church. [317][318] Some speculated that he would be beatified sometime during (or soon after) the month of the 32nd anniversary of his 1978 election, in October 2010. [362], Pope John Paul was alleged to have links with Banco Ambrosiano, an Italian bank that collapsed in 1982. [361] Of the nearly 200 cardinals in the Catholic Church, only two are known to be members of Opus Dei. [24] Emilia, who was a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929[25] when Wojtyła was eight years old. The president read the citation that accompanied the medal, which recognised "this son of Poland" whose "principled stand for peace and freedom has inspired millions and helped to topple communism and tyranny". [83][399] In February 2016 the BBC documentary program Panorama reported that John Paul II had apparently had a 'close relationship' with the Polish-born philosopher. Eternal Word Television Network. [392], Bishop Hnilica went to Russia on March 25, 1984 with Mother Teresa's rosary, to be present in Russia when Pope John Paul II in Rome consecrated Russia and the whole world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. In January 2007, Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz announced that the interview phase of the beatification process, in Italy and Poland, was nearing completion. [381][383][384][385][386] The pope continued with his address after Paisley had been ejected. He declared the publication to be "a sure norm for teaching the faith … a sure and authentic reference text for teaching Catholic doctrine and particularly for preparing local catechisms". [401][402], Writers Carl Bernstein, the veteran investigative journalist of the Watergate scandal, and Vatican expert Marco Politi, were the first journalists to talk to Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka in the 1990s about her importance in John Paul's life. [329][330] The next stage was for Cardinals who compose the membership of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints to give their opinion to Pope Francis to decide whether to sign and promulgate the decree and set a date for canonisation. One day, the judgment of God will arrive!'" Webcam. It is always a defeat for humanity. Principal co-consecrators were Bishop Boleslaw Kominek (Titular Bishop of Sophene and Vågå, auxiliary of the Catholic Archdiocese of Wrocław, and future Cardinal and Archbishop of Wrocław) and then-Auxiliary Bishop Franciszek Jop of the Catholic Diocese of Sandomierz (Titular Bishop of Daulia; later Auxiliary Bishop of the Archdiocese of Wrocław and then Bishop of the Catholic Diocese of Opole). Nobody knew how to get rid of Communism. [132], Pope John Paul II pushed for a reference to Europe's Christian cultural roots in the draft of the European Constitution. While in Britain he also visited Canterbury Cathedral and knelt in prayer with Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury, at the spot where Thomas à Becket had been killed,[103] as well as holding several large-scale open air masses, including one at Wembley Stadium, which was attended by some 80,000 people. Pope John Paul II died in his private apartment at 21:37 CEST (19:37 UTC) of heart failure from profound hypotension and complete circulatory collapse from septic shock, 46 days before his 85th birthday. Presenze lauretane. […] There is nothing strange, then, that the African and Asian animists would become believers in Christ more easily than followers of the great religions of the Far East.[200]. On many of those occasions, people would come here to the Vatican thanking the Holy Father for changing things. If the pope's visit inspired a riot, the Communist leaders of Poland were prepared to crush the uprising and blame the suffering on the pope. [79] Other encyclicals include The Gospel of Life (Evangelium Vitae) and Ut Unum Sint (That They May Be One). Reginald Garrigou-Lagrange beginning on 26 November 1946. Shortly before leaving Haiti, John Paul II called for social change in Haiti by saying: "Lift up your heads, be conscious of your dignity of men created in God's image...."[180]. At that time, Guatemala was one of only two countries in Latin America (the other being Cuba) to apply capital punishment. S. il Card. [29] School football games were often organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, and Wojtyła often played on the Jewish side. The pope's opposition to the Iraq War led to him being a candidate to win the 2003 Nobel Peace Prize, which was ultimately awarded to Iranian attorney/judge and noted human rights advocate, Shirin Ebadi. [62] He repeated this gesture, which he adapted from the French saint Jean Marie Baptiste Vianney,[62] throughout his papacy. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted the name of his predecessor in tribute to him. Once the second decree is signed, the positio (the report on the cause, with documentation about his life and writings and with information on the cause) is complete. [223][224], On 30 December 1993, John Paul II established formal diplomatic relations between the Holy See and the State of Israel, acknowledging its centrality in Jewish life and faith.[223]. [82] Tymieniecka produced the English-language version. [56] Wojtyła earned a licence in July 1947, passed his doctoral exam on 14 June 1948, and successfully defended his doctoral thesis titled Doctrina de fide apud S. Ioannem a Cruce (The Doctrine of Faith in St. John of the Cross) in philosophy on 19 June 1948. In 2001 he was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson's disease. The pope confided to a friend: "I received a letter from Pinochet in which he told me that as a Catholic he had listened to my words, he had accepted them, and he had decided to begin the process to change the leadership of his country. Pietro Zampetti attribuisce la copia, di fine esecuzione, a Mariano Fortuny (1871-1949), Santuario della Santa Casa Parkinson's disease,[299][305] was reported to have experienced a "complete and lasting cure after members of her community prayed for the intercession of Pope John Paul II". Evangelium Vitae. Europa; Asia; America; Africa; Oceania ; La Madonna Pellegrina; DELEGAZIONE PONTIFICIA; CONTATTI; DIRETTA TV; Lettera dell’Arcivescovo Delegato Pontificio Mons. Drawing on many different sources (such as Thomism), he described the mutually supporting relationship between faith and reason, and emphasised that theologians should focus on that relationship. Giovanni Colombo, the Archbishop of Milan was considered as a compromise candidate among the Italian cardinal-electors, but when he started to receive votes, he announced that, if elected, he would decline to accept the papacy. [148][149][145] During that visit Ernesto Cardenal, a priest and minister in the Sandinista government, knelt to kiss his hand. Present at the bedside was a cardinal from Ukraine, who served as a priest with John Paul in Poland, along with Polish nuns of the Congregation of the Sisters Servants of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, who ran the papal household. ", "Abuse in the Catholic Church / Cardinal Law and the laity", "Co Jan Paweł II wiedział o ks. "US-Holy See Diplomacy: The Establishment of Formal Relations, 1984. He preached in Canterbury Cathedral and received Robert Runcie, the Archbishop of Canterbury. The pope's desire for a reference to Europe's Christian identity in the Constitution was supported by non-Catholic representatives of the Church of England and Eastern Orthodox Churches from Russia, Romania, and Greece. "[339] The Church instituted reforms to prevent future abuse by requiring background checks for Church employees[340] and, because a significant majority of victims were boys, disallowing ordination of men with "deep-seated homosexual tendencies". "If the human body has its origin in living material which pre-exists it, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God. The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favour of this theory." traslazione della salma di Giovanni paolo II nella basilica di san pietro COMPLETO!!! Victorlifting. In the stormy history of relations between Roman popes and Jews in the ghetto in which they were closed for over three centuries in humiliating circumstances, John Paul II is a bright figure in his uniqueness. Nella Historia Langobardorum lo storico longobardo Paolo Diacono (VIII secolo) narra che alcune persone provenienti dai territori delle attuali Le Mans e Orléans avevano prelevato a Montecassino le reliquie dei santi Benedetto e Scolastica, approfittando dell’abbandono del monastero dovuto alla distruzione longobarda (VI secolo), per trasferirle in Gallia. It was the single largest gathering of heads of state up to that time, surpassing the funerals of Winston Churchill (1965) and Josip Broz Tito (1980). [212] Later John Paul II and Christodoulos met on a spot where Saint Paul had once preached to Athenian Christians. [212][213] In Athens, the pope met with Archbishop Christodoulos, the head of the Church of Greece. 3:54. [107], On 15 January 1995, during the X World Youth Day, he offered Mass to an estimated crowd of between five and seven million in Luneta Park,[99] Manila, Philippines, which was considered to be the largest single gathering in Christian history. For many years, John Paul II sought to facilitate dialogue and unity stating as early as 1988 in Euntes in mundum, "Europe has two lungs, it will never breathe easily until it uses both of them. Renato Buzzonetti. (frei erfunden). [383][387][388], A number of quotes about the apparitions of Međugorje, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have been attributed to John Paul II. [67] In 1961, he coined "Thomistic Personalism" to describe Aquinas's philosophy. Meanwhile, the pope gave Karekin the relics of St. Gregory the Illuminator, the first head of the Armenian Church that had been kept in Naples, Italy, for 500 years. [82][84] Wojtyła enjoyed his holiday in Pomfret, Vermont kayaking and enjoying the outdoors, as he had done in his beloved Poland. On 11 December 1983, John Paul II participated in an ecumenical service in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Rome,[234] the first papal visit ever to a Lutheran church. [88] Franz Cardinal König, Archbishop of Vienna, suggested to his fellow electors another compromise candidate: the Polish Cardinal Karol Józef Wojtyła. [171], During his visit to Chile in 1987, John Paul II asked Chile's 31 Catholic bishops to campaign for free elections in the country. Among those cardinals who rallied behind Wojtyła were supporters of Giuseppe Siri, Stefan Wyszyński, most of the American cardinals (led by John Krol), and other moderate cardinals. Kindle Edition. During this time, the Vatican had expressed its frustration with the international ignoring of the pope's calls for peace in the Middle East.[155]. Santuario della Santa Casa Edith credits Wojtyła with saving her life that day. Esposizione della salma nel Palazzo Apostolico. The Requiem Mass held on 8 April 2005 was said to have set world records both for attendance and number of heads of state present at a funeral. I PAPABOYS CON IL SERMIG DA PAPA BENEDETTO XVI: 7.000 GIOVANI DELLA PACE! While teaching, he gathered a group of about 20 young people, who began to call themselves Rodzinka, the "little family". John Paul II argued that the proper way to prevent the spread of AIDS was not condoms, but rather, "correct practice of sexuality, which presupposes chastity and fidelity.

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