Trimestrale di Letteratura e Cultura» (Genova), IV, 1, 2019, pp. It may even be that Lope's "manner" was more liberal and structured than Calderón's.  Another essential element of baroque painting was allegory; every painting told a story and had a message, often encrypted in symbols and allegorical characters, which an educated viewer was expected to know and read. Another notable example is the St. Nicholas Church (Malá Strana) in Prague (1704–55), built by Christoph Dientzenhofer and his son Kilian Ignaz Dientzenhofer.  Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who was a musician and noted composer as well as philosopher, made a very similar observation in 1768 in the famous Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot: "Baroque music is that in which the harmony is confused, and loaded with modulations and dissonances.  Although Lope has a great knowledge of the plastic arts, he did not use it during the major part of his career nor in theatre or scenography.  The same could be applied to the exterior. In addition to its practical (protective) function, the face also has aesthetic and architectural purposes. It is, along with the Teatro all'antica in Sabbioneta and the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza, one of only three Renaissance theaters still in existence. Die Leitung hatte der Kastraten-Sänger Farinelli.Der Tenor Anton Raaff sang die Rolle des Amasi.  However, the most celebrated work of Polish Baroque is the Fara Church in Poznań, with details by Pompeo Ferrari. The most ornamental and lavishly decorated architecture of the Spanish Baroque is called Churrigueresque style, named after the brothers Churriguera, who worked primarily in Salamanca and Madrid. Another influential painter of the Baroque era was Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.  The genre of Comedia is political, multi-artistic and in a sense hybrid. , In 1888 the art historian Heinrich Wölfflin published the first serious academic work on the style, Renaissance und Barock, which described the differences between the painting, sculpture, and architecture of the Renaissance and the Baroque. Another work of Baroque palace architecture is the Zwinger in Dresden, the former orangerie of the palace of the Dukes of Saxony in the 18th century. Granada had only been liberated from the Moors in the 15th century, and had its own distinct variety of Baroque. , The English word baroque comes directly from the French (as the modern standard English-language spelling might suggest). 2005. The Baroque (UK: / b ə ˈ r ɒ k /, US: / b ə ˈ r oʊ k /; French: ) is a style of architecture, music, dance, painting, sculpture and other arts that flourished in Europe from the early 17th century until the 1740s. There was also Johannes Velten who combined the traditions of the English comedians and the commedia dell'arte with the classic theatre of Corneille and Molière. In Prussia, Frederic II of Prussia was inspired the Grand Trianon of the Palace of Versailles, and used it as the model for his summer residence, Sanssouci, in Potsdam, designed for him by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff (1745–1747). The Lope's comedy granted a second role to the visual aspects of the theatrical representation. Following the death of Louis XIV, Louis XV added the more intimate Petit Trianon and the highly ornate theatre. , During the first period of the reign of Louis XIV, furniture followed the previous style of Louis XIII, and was massive, and profusely decorated with sculpture and gilding. The style began at the start of the 17th century in Rome, then spread rapidly to France, northern Italy, Spain and Portugal, then to Austria, southern Germany and Russia. Concerto Barocco is a neoclassical ballet made for students at the School of American Ballet by George Balanchine, subsequently ballet master and co-founder of New York City Ballet, to Johann Sebastian Bach's Concerto in D minor for Two Violins, BWV 1043. His realistic approach to the human figure, painted directly from life and dramatically spotlit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting. Poussin and La Tour adopted a "classical" Baroque style with less focus on emotion and greater attention to the line of the figures in the painting than to colour. During the Baroque period, the art and style of the theatre evolved rapidly, alongside the development of opera and of ballet. In the decorative arts there is an excess of ornamentation. The style spread quickly from Rome to other regions of Italy: It appeared in Venice in the church of Santa Maria della Salute (1631–1687) by Baldassare Longhena, a highly original octagonal form crowned with an enormous cupola. The sense of movement is given not by the decoration, but by the walls themselves, which undulate and by concave and convex elements, including an oval tower and balcony inserted into a concave traverse. The first Baroque building in present-day Poland and probably one of the most recognizable is the Church of St. Peter and Paul in Kraków, designed by Giovanni Battista Trevano. The interior of this church remained very austere until the high Baroque, when it was lavishly ornamented. , The Baroque had a Catholic and conservative character in Spain, following an Italian literary model during the Renaissance. , New and often enduring types of furniture appeared; the commode, with two to four drawers, replaced the old coffre, or chest. The painter, sculptor and architect Alonso Cano designed the Baroque interior of Granada Cathedral between 1652 and his death in 1657. Lo statuto degli studi sul teatro. Gassendi), arte (es. They were usually best seen from the outside and looking down, either from a chateau or terrace. ), turning empty areas into pompous, elaborate baroque scenarios. Das Teatro Farnese ist ein barockes Hoftheater in Parma. On the edges, the gardens usually had pavilions, orangeries and other structures where visitors could take shelter from the sun or rain. L'arte dell'interpretare. It mirrors the predominant styles of a certain era. , In Italy, artists often collaborated with architects on interior decoration; Pietro da Cortona was one of the painters of the 17th century who employed this illusionist way of painting. Terraces, ramps, staircases and cascades were placed where there were differences of elevation, and provided viewing points. Its historical centre is part of UNESCO World Heritage List.. In Moscow, Naryshkin Baroque became widespread, especially in the architecture of Eastern Orthodox churches in the late 17th century. The French baroque and Portuguese barroco were terms often associated with jewelry.  Lutheran Baroque art developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists.. The three galleries of columns in a giant ellipse balance the oversize dome and give the Church and square a unity and the feeling of a giant theatre. Rubens specialized in making altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In the Portuguese colonies of India (Goa, Daman and Diu) an architectural style of Baroque forms mixed with Hindu elements flourished, such as the Goa Cathedral and the Basilica of Bom Jesus of Goa, which houses the tomb of St. Francis Xavier. El teatro musical de Calderón de la Barca: Análisis textual. Her rooms at the Tuileries Palace and other Places were decorated in this style. These were usually painted on the stucco of ceilings or upper walls and balustrades, and gave the impression to those on the ground looking up were that they were seeing the heavens populated with crowds of angels, saints and other heavenly figures, set against painted skies and imaginary architecture. , The architects of the Spanish Baroque had an effect far beyond Spain; their work was highly influential in the churches built in the Spanish colonies in Latin America and the Philippines. Unlike the painted ceilings of Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, which combined different scenes, each with its own perspective, to be looked at one at a time, the Baroque ceiling paintings were carefully created so the viewer on the floor of the church would see the entire ceiling in correct perspective, as if the figures were real. Borromini designed the illusion with the assistance of a mathematician. Other distinctive monuments of the Elizabethan Baroque are the bell tower of the Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra and the Red Gate.. Louis XIV himself performed in public in several ballets. Under the patronage of Pope Urban VIII, he made a remarkable series of monumental statues of saints and figures whose faces and gestures vividly expressed their emotions, as well as portrait busts of exceptional realism, and highly decorative works for the Vatican, including the imposing Chair of St. Peter beneath the dome in St. Peter's Basilica. Of particular note is the so-called "Missionary Baroque", developed in the framework of the Spanish reductions in areas extending from Mexico and southwestern portions of current-day United States to as far south as Argentina and Chile, indigenous settlements organized by Spanish Catholic missionaries in order to convert them to the Christian faith and acculturate them in the Western life, forming a hybrid Baroque influenced by Native culture, where flourished Criollos and many Indian artisans and musicians, even literate, some of great ability and talent of their own. Some were in Rococo style, a distinct, more flamboyant and asymmetric style which emerged from the Baroque, then replaced it in Central Europe in the first half of the 18th century, until it was replaced in turn by classicism.. Their works include the buildings on the city's main square, the Plaza Mayor of Salamanca (1729). He said that in the first movement of Concerto Barocco the two ballerinas personify the violins, and that, "If the dance designer sees in the development of classical dancing a counterpart in the development of music, and has studied them both, he will derive continual inspiration from great scores. But a general feature is that everywhere the starting point is the ornamental elements introduced by the Renaissance. Some of the finest baroque sculptural craftsmanship was found in the gilded stucco altars of churches of the Spanish colonies of the New World, made by local craftsmen; examples include the Rosary Chapel of the Church of Santo Domingo in Oaxaca (Mexico), 1724–1731.  Cristofori named the instrument un cimbalo di cipresso di piano e forte ("a keyboard of cypress with soft and loud"), abbreviated over time as pianoforte, fortepiano, and later, simply, piano.. Circular or rectangular ponds or basins of water were the settings for fountains and statues. In their palette, they used intense and warm colours, and particularly made use of the primary colours red, blue and yellow, frequently putting all three in close proximity. The buildings are single-room basilicas, deep main chapel, lateral chapels (with small doors for communication), without interior and exterior decoration, very simple portal and windows.  Among the most influential monuments of the Early Baroque were the facade of St. Peter's Basilica (1606–1619), and the new nave and loggia which connected the facade to Michelangelo's dome in the earlier church. Other major painters associated closely with the Baroque style include Artemisia Gentileschi, Guido Reni, Domenichino, Andrea Pozzo, and Paolo de Matteis in Italy; Francisco de Zurbarán and Diego Velázquez in Spain; Adam Elsheimer in Germany; and Nicolas Poussin and Georges de La Tour in France (though Poussin spent most of his working life in Italy). , Triumph of Bacchus and Adriane (part of The Loves of the Gods); by Annibale Carracci; circa 1597–1600; fresco; length (gallery): 20.2 m; Palazzo Farnese (Rome), The Calling of St Matthew; by Caravaggio; 1599–1600; oil on canvas; 3.2 x 3.4 m; Church of St. Louis of the French (Rome), The Four Continents; by Peter Paul Rubens; circa 1615; oil on canvas; 209 x 284 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria), The Rape of the Sabine Women; by Nicolas Poussin; 1634–1635; oil on canvas; 154.6 x 209.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City), Charles I at the Hunt; by Anthony van Dyck; circa 1635; oil on canvas; 2.66 x 2.07 m; Louvre, The Night Watch; by Rembrandt; 1642; oil on canvas; 363 × 437 cm; Rijksmuseum (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), The Art of Painting; by Johannes Vermeer; 1666–1668; oil on canvas; 1.3 x 1.1 m; Kunsthistorisches Museum, The Portrait of Louis XIV; by Hyacinthe Rigaud; 1701; oil on canvas; 277 × 194 cm; Louvre. A statue at the end of the passage appears to be life-size, though it is only sixty centimeters high. It is also worth remembering the quality of the churches of the Spanish Jesuit Missions in Bolivia, Spanish Jesuit missions in Paraguay, the Spanish missions in Mexico and the Spanish Franciscan missions in California.. This was the sense of the word as used in 1855 by the leading art historian Jacob Burckhardt, who wrote that baroque artists "despised and abused detail" because they lacked "respect for tradition". New motifs introduced by Baroque are: the cartouche, trophies and weapons, baskets of fruit or flowers, and others, made in marquetry, stucco, or carved. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement limited. In addition, he designed fountains with monumental groups of sculpture to decorate the major squares of Rome. Noteworthy among his works La verdad sospechosa, a comedy of characters that reflected his constant moralizing purpose. Important architects of this style include Charles Garnier (1825–1898), Ferdinand Fellner (1847–1917), Hermann Helmer (1849–1919), and Ion D. Berindey (1871–1928). During the reign of Empress Anna and Elizaveta Petrovna, Russian architecture was dominated by the luxurious Baroque style of Italian-born Bartolomeo Rastrelli, which developed into Elizabethan Baroque. The main centres of American Baroque cultivation, that are still standing, are (in this order) Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Cuba, Colombia, Bolivia, Guatemala and Puerto Rico. It was rebuilt and reopened in 1962. The Criollo and Indidenous craftsmen did much to give this Baroque unique features.  By the mid-19th century, art critics and historians had adopted the term "baroque" as a way to ridicule post-Renaissance art. According to the playwright's own statements, he was born in Mexico City in 1580 or 1581. In Brazil, as in the metropolis, Portugal, the architecture has a certain Italian influence, usually of a Borrominesque type, as can be seen in the Co-Cathedral of Recife (1784) and Church of Nossa Senhora da Glória do Outeiro in Rio de Janeiro (1739). Practical and economical. Teatro Farnese is a Baroque-style theatre in the Palazzo della Pilotta, Parma, Italy. The set of churches and convents of Goa was declared a World Heritage Site in 1986. The altar is placed in the nave beneath the central dome, and surrounded by chapels, Light comes down from the dome above and from the surrounding chapels. Milano, 1993, S. 92–101. The representations in the viceregal palace and the mansions of the aristocracy, where they represented both the comedies of their repertoire and special productions with great lighting effects, scenery and stage, were also an important source of well-paid and prestigious work.. Insgesamt wurde dieses Libretto von mehr als 30 Komponisten vertont. Ornaments are the most common "ornaments" of buildings. In decorative arts, Baroque Revival is usually known as the Napoleon III style or Second Empire style.  It was built in 1618 by Giovanni Battista Aleotti. Palazzo Marino is a 16th-century palace located in Piazza della Scala, in the centre of Milan, Italy.It has been Milan's city hall since 9 September 1861. Opera was born in Italy at the end of the 16th century (with Jacopo Peri's mostly lost Dafne, produced in Florence in 1598) and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Louis XIV created the first Royal Academy of Music, In 1669, the poet Pierre Perrin opened an academy of opera in Paris, the first opera theatre in France open to the public, and premiered Pomone, the first grand opera in French, with music by Robert Cambert, with five acts, elaborate stage machinery, and a ballet. Major works included The Entry of Saint Ignace into Paradise by Andrea Pozzo (1685–1695) in the Church of Saint Ignatius in Rome, and The triumph of the name of Jesus by Giovanni Battista Gaulli in the Church of the Gesù in Rome (1669–1683), which featured figures spilling out of the picture frame and dramatic oblique lighting and light-dark contrasts. Many of the Baroque works in the historical area of the city and beyond, belong to Nicolau Nasoni an Italian architect living in Portugal, drawing original buildings with scenographic emplacement such as the church and tower of Clérigos, the logia of the Porto Cathedral, the church of Misericórdia, the Palace of São João Novo, the Palace of Freixo, the Episcopal Palace (Portuguese: Paço Episcopal do Porto) along with many others. The dome was one of the central symbolic features of Baroque architecture illustrating the union between the heavens and the earth, The inside of the cupola was lavishly decorated with paintings of angels and saints, and with stucco statuettes of angels, giving the impression to those below of looking up at heaven. Baroque painters worked deliberately to set themselves apart from the painters of the Renaissance and the Mannerism period after it. , The major royal project of the period was the expansion of Palace of Versailles, begun in 1661 by Le Vau with decoration by the painter Charles Le Brun. Construction took place between 1745 and 1754, and the interior was decorated with frescoes and with stuccowork in the tradition of the Wessobrunner School. Sondaggi intertestuali attorno a Ciro di Pers, in «Xenia. , Baroque sculpture was inspired by ancient Roman statuary, particularly by the famous statue of Laocoön from the first century AD, which was on display in the gallery of the Vatican. The gardens were designed by André Le Nôtre specifically to complement and amplify the architecture. Mansart completed the Grand Trianon in 1687. His techniques and mechanic knowledge were applied in palace exhibitions called "Fiestas" and in lavish exhibitions of rivers or artificial fountains called "Naumaquias". , In the 16th century, the Medieval Latin word baroco moved beyond scholastic logic and came into use to characterise anything that seemed absurdly complex. One of the main influence was the Louis XVI style, or French neoclassicism, which was preferred by the Empress Eugénie. Atti dei convegni internazionali, Torino, 22 marzo 1991, Alba, 8-10 novembre 1991, Genua 1993; Claudio Magris, “Giovanni Getto”, in: Corriere della Sera 9. Most Baroque revival buildings have mansard roofs, usually blue or sometimes black, with oval or dormer windows. The theatre was useful to the authorities as an instrument to disseminate the desired behavior and models, respect for the social order and the monarchy, school of religious dogma. Tirso de Molina is best known for two works, The Convicted Suspicions and The Trickster of Seville, one of the first versions of the Don Juan myth. , In the 18th century the term began to be used to describe music, and not in a flattering way. Other influences include French Renaissance and the Henry II style, which were popular influences on chests and cabinets, buffets and credences, which were massive and built like small cathedrals, decorated with columns, pediments, cartouches, mascarons, and carved angels and chimeras. , Early evidence of Italian Baroque ideas in painting occurred in Bologna, where Annibale Carracci, Agostino Carracci and Ludovico Carracci sought to return the visual arts to the ordered Classicism of the Renaissance. The new design created a dramatic contrast between the soaring dome and the disproportionately wide facade, and the contrast on the facade itself between the Doric columns and the great mass of the portico. Mai 2020 um 15:31. , Two periods are known in the Baroque Spanish theatre, with the division occurring in 1630. His work was extremely popular with Madame Pompadour, the Mistress of King Louis XV. The main influence was the Murillesque, and in some cases – as in the criollo Cristóbal de Villalpando – that of Valdés Leal. He was accompanied by several artists, including the engraver Nicolas Cochin and the architect Soufflot.  The Hispanic Baroque theatre aimed for a public content with an ideal reality that manifested fundamental three sentiments: Catholic religion, monarchist and national pride and honour originating from the chivalric, knightly world. Despite Alarcón's statements, most critics consider Taxco his birthplace. It was designed by the brothers J. His touring company was perhaps the most significant and important of the 17th century. Massimo Colella, Separatezza e conversazione. Baroque architecture in Portugal enjoys a special situation and different timeline from the rest of Europe. " In the 19th century, criticism went even further; the British critic John Ruskin declared that baroque sculpture was not only bad, but also morally corrupt.. The purpose of the baroque garden was to illustrate the power of man over nature, and the glory of its builder, Baroque gardens were laid out in geometric patterns, like the rooms of a house. The Baroque period was a golden age for theatre in France and Spain; playwrights included Corneille, Racine and Moliere in France; and Lope de Vega and Pedro Calderón de la Barca Spain. The Church built by the Jesuits for a college in Tepotzotlán, with its ornate Baroque facade and tower, is a good example. Pigalle was commissioned by Frederick the Great to make statues for Frederick's own version of Versailles at Sanssouci in Potsdam, Germany. The Swiss-born art historian Heinrich Wölfflin (1864–1945) started the rehabilitation of the word Baroque in his Renaissance und Barock (1888); Wölfflin identified the Baroque as "movement imported into mass", an art antithetic to Renaissance art. Some scholars state that the French word originated from the Portuguese term barroco ("a flawed pearl"), pointing to[clarification needed] the Latin verruca, ("wart"), or to a word with the suffix -ǒccu (common in pre-Roman Iberia). These were large plaques carved of marble or stone, usually oval and with a rounded surface, which carried images or text in gilded letters, and were placed as interior decoration or above the doorways of buildings, delivering messages to those below. Early major monuments in the Petrine Baroque include the Peter and Paul Cathedral and Menshikov Palace. Rastrelli's signature buildings include the Winter Palace, the Catherine Palace and the Smolny Cathedral. , Several new instruments, including the piano, were introduced during this period. Missionaries' accounts often repeat that Western art, especially music, had a hypnotic impact on foresters, and the images of saints were viewed as having great powers. , An alternative derivation of the word baroque points to the name of the Italian painter Federico Barocci (1528–1612). It is located in the foothills of the Alps, in the municipality of Steingaden in the Weilheim-Schongau district, Bavaria, Germany. "se dit seulement des perles qui sont d'une rondeur fort imparfaite". Falconet also received an important foreign commission, creating the famous statue of Peter the Great on horseback found in St. Petersburg. In his comedy it reflected his ideological and doctrine intentions in above the passion and the action, the work of Autos sacramentales achieved high ranks. Unlike the tranquil faces of Renaissance paintings, the faces in Baroque paintings clearly expressed their emotions. Peter Paul Rubens was the most important painter of the Flemish Baroque style. It was also very remarkable the Walled City of Manila (Intramuros). Born in the Viceroyalty of New Spain but later settled in Spain, Juan Ruiz de Alarcón is the most prominent figure in the Baroque theatre of New Spain. Façade of the Church of the Gesù from Rome (1584), Ceiling of the Church of the Gesù (1674–1679), Cartouches decorating courtyard of the Palazzo Spada from Rome, by Francesco Borromini (1632), Gallery with forced perspective, by Francesco Borromini, which creates the illusion that the corridor is much longer than it really is, in the Palazzo Spada (1632), The Chair of Saint Peter by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, in the St. Peter's Basilica from Rome (1657–1666), The Catholic Church in Spain, and particularly the Jesuits, were the driving force of Spanish Baroque architecture. Concerto Barocco is a neoclassical ballet made for students at the School of American Ballet by George Balanchine, subsequently ballet master and co-founder of New York City Ballet, to Johann Sebastian Bach's Concerto in D minor for Two Violins, BWV 1043. The console table also made its first appearance; it was designed to be placed against a wall. He decided, on his return to Russia, to construct similar monuments in St. Petersburg, which became the new capital of Russia in 1712. Rubens' highly charged compositions reference erudite aspects of classical and Christian history. It appeared also in Turin, notably in the Chapel of the Holy Shroud (1668–1694) by Guarino Guarini. The Baldequin of St. Peter is an example of the balance of opposites in Baroque art; the gigantic proportions of the piece, with the apparent lightness of the canopy; and the contrast between the solid twisted columns, bronze, gold and marble of the piece with the flowing draperies of the angels on the canopy. They returned to Paris with a passion for classical art. It borders on Piazza San Fedele, Piazza della Scala, Via Case Rotte and Via Tommaso Marino..  Notable architects included Johann Fischer von Erlach, Lukas von Hildebrandt and Dominikus Zimmermann in Bavaria, Balthasar Neumann in Bruhl, and Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann in Dresden. Despite his accommodation to Lope de Vega's new comedy, his "marked secularism", his discretion and restraint, and a keen capacity for "psychological penetration" as distinctive features of Alarcón against his Spanish contemporaries have been noted. They often used asymmetry, with action occurring away from the centre of the picture, and created axes that were neither vertical nor horizontal, but slanting to the left or right, giving a sense of instability and movement. Mit Il complesso barocco und deren Gründer und Leiter Alan Curtis gastierte die Sängerin mehrfach konzertant im Theater an der Wien: 2009 als Elisa in Scarlattis Tolomeo e Alessandro, 2010 und 2012 als Eisa und Nerea in den Händel-Opern Tolomeo und Deidamia, sowie 2012 – mit der Accademia Bizantina unter Ottavio Dantone – als Lucio in Tito Manlio von Vivaldi. It followed Renaissance art and Mannerism and preceded the Rococo (in the past often referred to as "late Baroque") and Neoclassical styles. They enhanced this impression of movement by having the costumes of the personages blown by the wind, or moved by their own gestures. The Church of San Francisco Acatepec from Mexico, The Chihuahua Cathedral from Mexico (1725–1792), The León Cathedral from Nicaragua (1747–1814), an UNESCO World Heritage Site, The Minor Basilica of San Francisco de Asís from Havana (Cuba) (1548–1738), The Church of Rosário dos Pretos from Ouro Preto (Brazil) (1762–1799), The Church of San Agustín from Quito (Ecuador) (1606–1617), The Palacio de Torre Tagle from Lima (Peru) (1715–1735), Balconies of Lima, The Santo Domingo Church from Santiago (Chile) (1747–1808). One of the best examples of a rococo church is the Basilika Vierzehnheiligen, or Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, a pilgrimage church located near the town of Bad Staffelstein near Bamberg, in Bavaria, southern Germany. By the 19th century, Baroque was a target for ridicule and criticism. The Galerie des Glaces (Hall of Mirrors), the centerpiece of the château, with paintings by Le Brun, was constructed between 1678 and 1686. Many monumental works were commissioned by Popes Urban VIII and Alexander VII. Other city with notable preserved Spanish-era Baroque is Tayabas. Liberty, vitality and openness of Lope gave a step to Calderón's intellectual reflection and formal precision.  The New York City Ballet premiere was October 11, 1948, as one of three ballets on the program of its first performance at New York City Center. In Peru, the constructions mostly developed in the cities of Lima, Cusco, Arequipa and Trujillo since 1650 show original characteristics that are advanced even to the European Baroque, as in the use of cushioned walls and solomonic columns (Church of la Compañía de Jesús, Cusco; Basilica and Convent of San Francisco, Lima). It is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Another key factor is the existence of the Jesuitical architecture, also called "plain style" (Estilo Chão or Estilo Plano) which like the name evokes, is plainer and appears somewhat austere. von Spanien in Madrid aufgeführt. However, a baptismal certificate dated December 30, 1572 has been found in Taxco, belonging to a boy named Juan, son of Pedro Ruiz de Alarcón and Leonor de Mendoza, the poet's parents. Marking the principal innovations of the New Lopesian Comedy, Calderón's style marked many differences, with a great deal of constructive care and attention to his internal structure. The singing is harsh and unnatural, the intonation difficult, and the movement limited. Another new type of furniture was the table à gibier, a marble-topped table for holding dishes.
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